Demonetisation: Was it all worth it?

One year on, APARAJITA GUPTA concludes, short-term costs were high, long-term benefit doubtful

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When Raghuram Rajan, former governor of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), cautioned the government against demonetisation, saying short-term economic costs would outweigh long-term benefits, he was not trying to be prophetic. But a year after Prime Minister Narendra Modi made that fateful announcement in a nationwide broadcast on the evening of November 8, it would seem Rajan’s words had actually become so.

As economists and analysts, corporate honchos and statisticians struggle to gauge the beneficial impact of demonetisation, many of the objectives claimed by the government have fallen by the wayside. New claims and afterthoughts on the note ban by senior politicians in power have remained unconvincing.

Demonetisation has raised more questions than it has answered. The Prime Minister, in banning 1,000 and 500-rupee notes – or 86 per cent of total currency in circulation – had indicated that the decision would help remove black money from the system, rein in terrorism and take fake currency out of circulation. Have these objectives been met?

“Demonetisation was an utter failure. Theoretically, it was known it cannot be successful. It could not remove black money, but in turn it has damaged the white economy and growth,” Arun Kumar, former professor of economics at the Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) told IANS.

currency demonetization in india 2016

The benefits of the decision are yet to percolate to the economy, but the disruption as well as pain that it caused to hundreds of millions was very real, whose lingering effects are seen to this day and, which, at that time, had shaken the country to its core, touching nearly every citizen and visitor.

The overnight serpentine queues for weeks in front of banks, the loss of over a hundred lives in the effort to withdraw one’s own money or change it, and the desperate desire to ensure that cash in hand did not turn to ash took its toll across the country.

Was it worth it?

“The government made the elementary mistake of believing that black money is kept in cash. Black wealth can be transacted by non-cash means as well,” said Kumar, who is now Chair-Professor with the Institute of Social Sciences. “Only three per cent of Indians generate substantial black money. But for this, the other 97 per cent had to face the consequences of demonetisation.”

After months of vacillating, and being less than honest with citizens, RBI data in August 2017 said that 99 per cent of the banned currency in high denomination notes had returned to the banking system – Rs 15.28 lakh crore out of the Rs 15.44 lakh crore in circulation on November 8, 2016. The calculation does not take into account the money changed by people in Nepal, where it’s legal tender, or old notes held by many non-resident Indians who could not exchange it within the deadline.

“Indian demonetisation was remarkable, because unlike many countries that faced major economic and political problems after even less drastic measures, this passed off peacefully as most Indians accepted the (wrong) argument that this would end corruption,” Jayati Ghosh, Economics Professor at JNU, told IANS.

Modi.Indian Link

“The initial reasons the government had advanced for this move, of reducing terrorism and eliminating both black money and corruption, were rapidly abandoned for other supposed goals, which are also yet to be met. There was no planning before unleashing such a big decision,” she added.

The difficulty in making a cost-benefit analysis is that the move was not purely economic, given the fact that the currency issuer – the RBI – had no role in the decision, as testified by Rajan.

Demonetisation comes across more as a measure of political economy which may appear, on the face of it, to have paid immediate political dividend to the Prime Minister and his party in the Uttar Pradesh elections this year. But the medium- to long-term picture would take a while to clear up, though short-term impact has already taken its toll on growth.

A predictable slowdown

At the end of May, the Central Statistics Office announced that the GDP during the fourth quarter ending in March this year, fell sharply to 6.1 per cent from seven per cent in the previous quarter, while growth for the year as a whole was also expected to decline correspondingly. India’s GDP during the past fiscal grew at 7.1 per cent – at a rate lower than the eight per cent achieved in 2015-16. In terms of gross value added, which excludes taxes but includes subsidies, the growth came in even lower at 5.6 percent over 2015-16.

“Demonetisation is a textbook example of what happens when you remove liquidity that is the basis of transactions. The immediate result was that people didn’t have money even for small transactions. This had a strong negative multiplier effect, most evident in the informal sector,” Ghosh said.

“Cash is the means of transaction in the unorganised sector, which contributes 45 per cent to the GDP. The unorganised sector got hit by 60-80 per cent,” Kumar said, adding that the country went through a negative rate of growth in November-December 2016.

In October, the International Monetary Fund said in its latest World Economic Outlook that India’s economic growth for 2017 and 2018 would be slower than earlier projections. The report cited the “lingering impact” of demonetisation and the

Goods and Services Tax (GST) for the expected slowdown, projecting a growth of 6.7 per cent in 2017 and 7.4 per cent in 2018 – 0.5 and 0.3 percentage points less, respectively, than earlier projections.

Ghosh said that the steps on demonetisation, taken together, “generated a perfect recipe for slowdown in the economy. In fact, the slowdown is likely to be much sharper than estimated because the quick GDP estimates are based on formal economic activity, and the adverse impact on informal activities have not really been taken into account”.

Ranen Banerjee, Partner & Leader, Public Finance and Economics, at PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) feels the country was already cooling down when the note ban came in, and it would take some time to evaluate its impact on the macro economy. “About three to four quarters prior to demonetisation growth rates were already on a sliding path. It could well be that the economy was cooling down and the trend has continued. Attributing the slowdown solely on demonetisation is not possible as we do not have sufficient data points,” Banerjee told IANS.

Economist Dipankar Dasgupta, former professor of economics at the Indian Statistical Institute, said that although GDP in India is not calculated in a very comprehensive manner, the trend growth rate continued to be “pretty robust.” However, despite the claim by the government of ending corruption through demonetisation, “day-to-day bribes are still being taken through cash,” Dasgupta told IANS.

Initial objectives not met

The objectives of dealing a blow to militancy and curbing fake money too seems not to have been met, as can be seen in Jammu and Kashmir, where, ironically, more incidents of militancy have been seen after demonetisation. “Logistics like shelter, passage and cash are mostly routed through over-ground

workers and sympathisers of militants and those who could arrange high value notes in the previous system are doing so at present as well,” a senior intelligence officer told IANS in Srinagar on condition of anonymity.

Similarly, about fake currency, officials said the notes carried by militants from across the border were sophisticated copies and those who made them earlier could easily make fakes of the new currencies.

Perhaps there has been some beneficial effect on the digital economy. Industry stakeholders feel that though the note-ban drive gave the necessary impetus to citizens to start adopting online payment platforms, a lot needs to be done by both the government and the industry to make it a success.

But was the country-wide upheaval worth it to make people adopt more digital transactions? No jury would need to deliberate for long on such a question.

-IANS

  • raghbjha

    This is a highly one-sided article that chooses to portray what it wants to portray and ignores the rest.

  • raghbjha

    So, all the data on the amount of suspicious depsosit in some bank accounts, money deposited in suspicious accounts, the number of shell companies closed, the ease of passage to the GST and many otehrs are all irrelevant, according to the authore of this article. Also, the article chooses to ignore the fact that the government prepared the economy for the demonetisation through opening up of Jana Dhana accounts and giving tax dodgers to come clean. All this happpened before demonetisation. The appropriate counterfactual for assessing the impact on economic growth is what the growth would have been had there been no demonetisation – not the actual rate of economic growth. In any case growth picked up after one quarter of decline. Future growth will be faster, cleaner and more sustainable and inclusive. Readers should be highly sceptical of highly opnionated pieces like this that choose to ignore the facts.

  • Prakash Mehta

    This is a
    highly biased and one-sided article on demonetisation in India due to many reasons.
    First, ordinary people had several opportunities to open up bank accounts (including Jana Dhana accounts) in which they could deposit their old currency notes. Second, those who had dodged taxes were given a generous opportunity to come clean, declare their assets, pay their dues and become part of the legitimate economy. Hence, the only people whose wealth positions would be adversely affected by demonetisation would be the dishonest. Others would
    be affected only temporarily and to the extent that they had to stand in queue to withdraw cash and/or deposit money. Second, black money in the Indian economy has come down substantially. More than 300,000 shell companies that were being used for money laundering have been closed. Hundreds of thousands of suspicious deposits into bank accounts have been identified and will be pursued. A strong benami law and a regulatory authority for real estate are functional. Third, the tax base of the economy has gone up sharply as numbers of both direct and indirect tax payers have gone up. This will enable the government to spend more on health,
    education and infrastructure, among other things. Fourth, digitisation of the economy has rapidly expanded. Fifth, the shrinking of the informal economy has meant that the country could adopt the GST which has led to the creation of a unified Indian market for the first time since ndependence.